Journal of Applied Research in Community Colleges. Peer-Reviewed Since 1993

FALL 2020 - VOLUME 27, ISSUE 2

Effect of Same-Race Ethnic Faculty on the Course Completion of Students of Color

Janét Hund, Long Beach City College

While qualitative studies point to the role played by faculty of color in promoting the success of students of color, few quantitative studies examine institutional data to determine such effects. This quantitative study set out to examine the main effects of race-ethnicity of faculty members, race-ethnicity of students, and the interaction effects of these variables on course completion. Analysis of large institutional data (N=71,255 course completion records) revealed no effect of the race-ethnicity of faculty members; however, the effect of the race-ethnicity of students was found to be significant as was the interaction effect of race-ethnicity of faculty members and race-ethnicity of students. Using Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, the results revealed that when African American and Latinx students are taught by their same race-ethnic faculty, their course completions increase. Critical race and identity theories provide a framework for understanding the findings. Recommendations for practice are provided.

Keywords: race-ethnicity; faculty effects; student success

Hund, J. (2020). Effect of same-race ethnic faculty on the course completion of students of color. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 7-24.

Equity-Minded Educators: Identifying Differences in Student Services Practices that Benefit Students of Color

J. Luke Wood, San Diego State University

Frank Harris III, San Diego State University

This study sought to determine the types of ways that educators engage the principles of equity-mindedness, and whether there are discernable differences between equity-minded educators and their peers on their perceptions and use of promising practices for supporting the success of underserved students of color. A cluster analysis demonstrated that there were five primary types of educators: Equity-Minded, Emergent-Minded, Deficit-Minded, Extant-Minded, and Dissonant-Minded. Those who were Equity-Minded had higher scores for relationship building, validating practices, and welcoming engagement than their peers. Other differences were detected between groups that generally showed that those educators who were classified as Extant-Minded and Deficit-Minded had the lowest scores for employing the identified practices.

Keywords: equity-minded; students of color; student services practices

Wood, J. L., & Harris, F., III. (2020). Equity-minded educators: Identifying differences in student services practices that benefit students of color. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 25-36.

Exploring the Role of Mentoring Networks in the Career Development of Women Community College Leaders

Gayle E. Barrett, Connecticut State Colleges & Universities

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role that mentoring networks play in the career satisfaction of women community college leaders. This study used the Developmental Network Typology as established by Higgins and Kram (2001) as a framework to answer three research questions. A total of 79 women community college leaders from New England were surveyed through a 41-item researcher-developed survey tool. The findings showed that the majority of respondents reported their mentoring networks were formed on an informal basis. The findings also showed that the framework did not apply to all participants, as some participants identified with a collaborative network, one that consisted mostly of peers and colleagues. Finally, the findings indicated that the stronger the bond between mentor and mentee, the more likely that participants felt that mentors played a role in their career satisfaction.

Keywords: women; mentoring; career development

Barrett, G, E. (2020). Exploring the role of mentoring networks in the career development of women community college leaders. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 37-50.

Formerly Incarcerated Latino Men in California Community Colleges

Melissa E. Abeyta, San Diego State University

Multiple systems of institutional oppression have led to the incarceration (and reincarceration) of Latino men. This study explored the disparities that formerly incarcerated Latino male students encounter while attempting to achieve positive educational outcomes in community college, and advocates for policies, programs, and services that support students in successfully navigating the higher education pipeline. Qualitative research methods were employed to examine conceptions of formerly incarcerated Latino men—among ten male students enrolled at California community colleges. Data collection consisted of semi-structured individual interviews, conducted face-to-face and online. A phenomenological approach guided the design and execution of the study. The findings of this study could be used to inform the work of administrators, faculty, and practitioners at community colleges, such as suggesting strategies for increasing the matriculation and completion of formerly incarcerated Latino men at community colleges.

Keywords: formerly incarcerated; Latino men; community college

Abeyta, M. E. (2020). Formerly incarcerated Latino men in California community colleges. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 51-62.

Ke Ala ʻIke (The Knowledge Path): A Native Hawaiian’s Response to Inspire College Degree Attainment

Aulii-Ann Silva, Leeward Community College

Adult Native Hawaiians are the least likely to hold college degrees among Hawaiʻi’s residents. Without degrees, Native Hawaiians are less likely to secure living-wage and professional occupations; thus, they experience the worst socio-economic conditions in their homeland. As the largest Native Hawaiian-serving community college, Leeward Community College (LCC) introduced the Ke Ala ʻIke (The Knowledge Path) program to increase Native Hawaiian enrollment, persistence, graduation, and transfer outcomes. After forming a team of program stakeholders, the author conducted a summative and responsive evaluation to assess the program’s effect on recent graduates. The author used indigenous evaluation methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about recent program completers and facilitated data analysis with program stakeholders. The team’s insights brought forth key findings. Data revealed the program’s framework of required activities led to promising financial aid, graduation, transfer, and cultural well-being outcomes among LCC’s native and non-Native Hawaiian graduates.

Keywords: Native Hawaiians; college success; indigenous education

Silva, A.-A. (2020). Ke ala ʻike (the knowledge path): A native Hawaiian’s response to inspire college degree attainment. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 63-80.

Unveiling the Voices of Afghan Women in Community College

Hossna Sadat Ahadi, Palomar College

There continues to be great uncertainty socially and politically for Afghan women in Afghanistan and Afghan immigrants living in the United States. Afghan diaspora took place due to political tyranny and war-torn status. Subsequently, immigrant women are confronted with microaggressions in the United States. The intersectionality of underrepresented and racially minoritized women in the U.S. is important to examine. Critical race theory provides greater validation for immigrant communities of color to share their counterstories regarding the marginalization and oppression they continue to encounter in the United States. This qualitative research study unveils the voices and lived experiences of 19 Afghan and Afghan-American cisgender women, including my own heuristic inquiry. The four major themes that surfaced from this study include: (a) duality/biculturalism, (b) intersectionality, (c) resistance/challenges, and (d) family influence. Results from this study are a source for community colleges to understand and further support immigrant students of color.

Keywords: Afghan women; critical race theory; intersectionality; microaggressions

Ahadi, H. S., (2020). Unveiling the voices of Afghan women in community college. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 81-94.

Assessing the Impact of Dual Credit and Advanced Placement Programs on Completion and Success Rates of Community College Graduates

Omar Torres, College of the Canyons

Lu Liu, University of La Verne

In order to further promote and expedite postsecondary completion, efforts exist across the nation to expand programs that allow high school students to engage in college-level coursework through dual credit (via concurrent and dual enrollment) and Advanced Placement (AP). Minimal research addresses differences in both these programs for community college students when examining their success and completion. A quantitative ex post facto research design was used to analyze sample data from a single community college district with an ethnic breakdown closely resembling Los Angeles County. Data analyses featured the use of multiple linear regression when examining success and binary logistic regression when studying completion or transfer. Compared to students who neither participated in dual credit or AP programs, exposure to dual credit and AP while in high school positively predicted community college success and greater degree completion or transfer when controlling for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and high school GPA.

Keywords: dual credit; community college completion; community college success; advanced placement

Liu, L., & Torres, O. (2020). Assessing the impact of dual credit and advanced placement programs on completion and success rates of community college graduates. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 95-108.

Illuminating a Path to College: How Dual Credit Benefits Rural Students

Hugo A. García, Texas Tech University

There is a large corpus of work regarding college access and attainment; however, this work is largely based within non-rural environments. The limited research on rural education suggests that various factors impede access to higher education for rural students. Dual credit programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses. Studies have found that participation in dual credit programs promotes GPA, college enrollment, and completion. In this qualitative study, staff, faculty, and administrators were interviewed to obtain their perceptions of (a) why rural students enroll in dual credit and challenges they face, and (b) what are the dual credit participation benefits for rural students. Findings suggest that the three primary reasons for participating in dual credit are: family influence, saving money, and following peers. Findings also suggest that dual credit programs help students in both academic and social development.

Keywords: dual credit; rural education; funds of knowledge García, H, A. (2020). Illuminating a path to college: How dual credit benefits rural students. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 109-124.

Accelerating Through the Finish Line: How to Lead Students to Degree Completion

Justin Chase Brown, University of Nebraska – Lincoln

This practice brief offers evidence-based recommendations to community college leaders via four themes in addressing degree completion. Informed by Wang’s (2017) emerging model of momentum for community college student success, it presents practical methods to lead students to completion by building momentum. Whereas there exists a national movement for increased college completion, this brief provides success strategies for leaders to influence behaviors and choices of students in ways that deliver momentum toward completion. At a time when demographic forecasts and demand for higher education in the United States predicts fewer students in community colleges, increasing persistence and completion rates become a greater priority. Leaders should anticipate these shifts and enhance strategies to increase degree completion. Evidence-based practice suggests this can be accomplished through students achieving early college credits, completing specific milestones, increasing enrollment intensity, and maintaining continuous enrollment. These themes provide a system leaders can utilize to achieve results.

Keywords: completion; momentum; higher education demand; student success

Brown, J. C. (2020). Accelerating through the finish line: How to lead students to degree completion. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 125-134.

Enhancing the Faculty Role in Fostering the Community College Completion Agenda

William E. Piland, San Diego State University

Alexandria Piland, Central New Mexico Community College

Across the country, community colleges are pursuing strategies to increase the numbers of students who graduate with associate degrees. These strategies are typically greeted with a great deal of excitement. However, their impact at the classroom level is very questionable. The purpose of this practice brief is to bring the spotlight on faculty and the community college classroom for improving graduation rates. Faculty roles in graduation of students are presented within the framework of lagging and leading indicators of performance. Graduation is a lagging indicator. Faculty have no direct control over this indicator. Faculty do control the leading indicators of retention, success, and persistence. They can take direct actions to influence these indicators, which ultimately impact completion. To improve completion, faculty must work to close the achievement gaps that exist for groups of students. Culturally relevant teaching practices are an avenue to accomplish this important task.

Keywords: completion agenda; leading and lagging indicators; retention; success and persistence

Piland, W. E., & Piland, A. (2020). Enhancing the faculty role in fostering the community college completion agenda. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 135-144.

Institutional Research and Remediation Reform: A Contextualized Exploration of Interactions Among New Metrics, Innovative Curricula, and Policy Changes

Terrence Willett, Cabrillo College

Mallory Newell, DeAnza College

Craig Hayward, Bakersfield College

John Hetts, California Community College Chancellor’s Office

This practice brief aims to provide educators a perspective into the varying metrics and methods used to measure the completion of transfer-level English and math and its relationship to remedial education and policy development. The authors use a case study of remediation reform in California Community Colleges to explore conducting multiple measures assessment research to increase placement accuracy, determining how to maximize the probability that students complete transfer-level English and math courses, and translating research findings into policy implementation.

Keywords: remediation; placement; standardized tests; predictive validity; education policy

Willett, T., Newell, M., Hayward, C., & Hetts, J. (2020). Institutional research and remediation reform: A contextualized exploration of interactions among new metrics, innovative curricula, and policy changes. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 145-156.

Transforming the Community College Transfer Pipeline for Latinx Students

José Del Real Viramontes, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

This practice brief provides leaders at four-year institutions recommendations to develop a transfer receptive culture for Latinx community college students. Despite the majority of Latinx students attending a community college with intentions to transfer and graduate from a four-year institution, only a few achieve this goal. Part-time enrollment, financial challenges, academic obstacles, and limited access to information about transferring to a four-year institution prevent Latinx students from transferring. At the university, Latinx students experience isolation and discrimination due to their race/ethnicity, gender, age, class, and perceived abilities. To address issues in the transfer process, four-year institutions must engage and re-engage Latinx students at multiple points during the transfer process to assess and re-assess what Latinx students' needs may be. Four-year institutions may face obstacles implementing some of these recommendations. Anticipating obstacles provide four-year institutions opportunities to prepare themselves and confront these barriers before they get passed on to the student.

Keywords: Latinx community college students; community college transfer; Latinx transfer students

Viramontes, J. D. R. (2020). Transforming the community college transfer pipeline for Latinx students. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 157-168.

Forming a Crime Prevention Net for Community Colleges: Responding to Campus Safety Concerns

Hassan Ramzah, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Incidences of violence, threats, and intimidation can make students, faculty, and staff feel unsafe on college campuses resulting in instances of fear and anxiety which can be detrimental to the academic mission in higher education environments. Additionally, these incidents have the potential to negatively impact student retention and overall efforts to promote a safe campus environment. While no college campus can be totally immune to incidents of crime and disorder, the implementation of crime prevention strategies and proactive safety measures can aid in reducing the potential for victimization and incidents that may contribute to negative perceptions of personal safety. This practice brief provides administrators and public safety professionals with recommendations for promoting crime prevention and improving student perceptions of safety on community college campuses.

Keywords: campus safety; crime prevention; security; threat assessment

Ramzah, H. (2020). Forming a crime prevention net for community colleges: Responding to campus safety concerns. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 27(2), 169-176.